The book is an indispensable companion to all students of biology, but particularly those enrolled in courses concerning experimental design, data analysis, hypothesis testing, research methods, or any practical project work.
Science is a process of asking questions, in most cases precise, quantitative questions that allow distinctions to be drawn between alternative explanations of events. Asking the right questions in the right way is a fundamental skill in scientifc enquiry, yet in itself it receives surprisingly little explicit attention in scientifc training. Students being trained in scientifc subjects, for instance in sixth forms, colleges and universities, learn the factual science and some of the tools of enquiry such as laboratory techniques, mathematics, statistics and computing, but they are taught little about the process of question-asking itself.
Thus in the ffth edition we have decided to base the analyses on R® alone, to encourage undergraduates to use it. Unlike most modern programs, R® is not a ‘point-and-click’ process, but you have to write the commands in yourself. This means you need to know what you are doing, otherwise you will not get any meaningful results. Several colleagues have suggested that this will be a barrier to modern undergraduates who have become used to simpler ways of obtaining output from such programs. However, our experience teaching it to undergraduates shows that they learn it almost as quickly as any other package, and so the ‘barrier’ is not as large as many think. And using R® will be much more useful to students in the longer term.
· A range of boxes within the text highlight key concepts, present worked examples spanning topics from ecology, and behaviour to toxicology and parasitology
· Coverage of a range of tests including repeated measures designs, analysis of covariance, multiple regression and principal components analysis
· An easy to use test finder and quick test finder guides
· A set of useful self test questions and answers
· Sections on using online literature databases, plagiarism, presenting findings to a non-scientific audience and ethical considerations
۱ Doing science: Where do questions come from?
۱.۱ Science as asking questions
۱.۲ Basic considerations
۱.۳ The skill of asking questions
۱.۴ Where do questions come from?
۱.۵ What this book is about
۲ Asking questions: The art of framing hypotheses and predictions
۲.۲ Exploratory analysis
۲.۳ Forming hypotheses
۳ Answering questions: What do the results say?
۳.۱ Confirmatory analysis
۳.۲ What is statistical significance?
۳.۳ Significance tests
۳.۴ Testing hypotheses
۳.۵ Testing predictions
۳.۶ Refining hypotheses and predictions
۴ Presenting information: How to communicate outcomes and conclusions
۴.۱ Presenting figures and tables
۴.۲ Presenting results in the text
۴.۳ Writing reports
۴.۴ Writing for a more general readership
۴.۵ Presenting in person: spoken papers and poster presentations
Test finder and help guide
Some self-test questions
Appendix I: Table of confidence limits to the median
Appendix II: How to calculate some simple significance tests
Appendix III: Significance tables
Appendix IV: The common codes for the important graphical parameters of R
Answers to self-test questions
لینک کوتاه : https://bookbaz.ir/?p=61866
نویسنده : Chris Prof Barnard
ناشر : Pearson Higher Education
سال انتشار : 2017
زبان کتاب : انگلیسی
نوع فایل : PDF
تعداد صفحات : 263
(ISBN) شابک : 1292085991
قیمت کتاب درآمازون : $31.84
حجم فایل : 4 MB